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The ultimate guide to the clock change

The ultimate guide to the clock change – get prepared for the biannual time shift

Wednesday 25 October 2023

History of the clock change

The clock change has a history as complex as the feelings it evokes. Originating in the early 20th century, the concept was first proposed by George Vernon Hudson, a New Zealand entomologist. However, it was William Willett, an English builder, who passionately campaigned for its implementation in Britain. The primary objective? To make better use of natural daylight during the evenings, thereby conserving energy. It was a notion that gained traction during World War I and has since become a staple in over 70 countries worldwide. You might be intrigued to know that the initial reception to daylight saving was far from unanimous. Public opinion was divided, with farmers being particularly vocal in their opposition. The rationale behind their dissent was rooted in the disruption it caused to their daily routines and agricultural practices. Yet, the idea persevered, largely due to its energy-saving potential and the benefits it offered to industrial production.

Fast forward to today, and the clock change has become so ingrained in our lives that its original purpose is often overlooked. But as the leaves turn and the sun takes its time to rise, we're reminded of its impact—both beneficial and challenging. The shift in time affects not just our schedules but also our internal body clocks, leading to a range of consequences that are both surprising and, at times, disconcerting.

It's worth noting that the clock change has not been without its critics in recent years. In fact, the European Parliament voted in 2019 to abolish the practice of daylight-saving time across EU member states by 2021. The directive was rooted in concerns about the adverse health effects of the time change, including sleep disruption and increased risk of heart attacks. However, the proposal hit a snag.

Member states couldn't reach a consensus on whether to permanently adopt summer or winter time, leading to a delay in the directive's implementation. As of now, the clock change remains a biannual event, even in the EU, as discussions continue. This episode serves as a poignant reminder that even long-standing practices can be called into question, and it adds another layer of complexity to the ongoing debate surrounding this time-honoured ritual.

Effects of the Clock Change.

The eye strain problem

The clock change brings with it a shift in natural light, affecting not just our internal body clocks but also our vision. The decrease in daylight can lead to increased eye strain, especially for those engaged in tasks that require acute visual focus, such as reading or sewing. The lower light levels can make it challenging to see fine details clearly, causing you to squint or strain your eyes, which can lead to headaches and fatigue.

The emotional toll

The shift in time affects more than just our physical state; it can also disturb our emotional equilibrium. The change in natural light exposure can lead to disruptions in the production of serotonin, a hormone that plays a crucial role in mood regulation. This can result in feelings of lethargy, irritability, and in more severe cases, symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).

Well-being impact

The clock change can also have broader implications for our overall well-being. The disruption to our circadian rhythm can lead to sleep disturbances, affecting not just the quantity but also the quality of sleep. Poor sleep can have a domino effect, impacting cognitive functions like memory, concentration, and even creativity.

Preparing for the clock change

The clock change in autumn can be just as disorienting as its spring counterpart. While gaining an extra hour of sleep may sound appealing, it can throw off our circadian rhythms, affecting our mood, focus, and overall well-being. The darker evenings can also impact our mental health, leading to symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). However, the extra morning light can be a boon, helping us wake up more naturally.

Your simple plan for easing into Greenwich Mean Time

Here's a straightforward three-step plan to help you transition smoothly into the new time.


Start by waking up half an hour earlier than usual to expose yourself to the morning light, which can help reset your internal clock. Engage in moderate physical activity, but avoid caffeine throughout the day. Aim to go to bed half an hour earlier than your usual bedtime to start adjusting your sleep schedule.


Continue the routine of waking up earlier and getting morning sunlight. Adjust your meals to be half an hour earlier than usual, which can also help reset your internal clock. In the evening, keep your environment dimly lit to signal to your body that it's time to wind down. Aim to go to bed an hour earlier than your regular bedtime (or 30 minutes earlier than Friday).


By now, your body should be adjusting to the new time. Wake up at what will be your new regular time, and you should find that your mealtimes naturally align with your adjusted schedule. You'll be in sync with Greenwich Mean Time, ready to start your week feeling refreshed and focused. By following this plan, you'll be better prepared to face the challenges and opportunities that come with the end of British Summer Time. You'll not only adjust your internal body clock but also set yourself up for a healthier, more productive autumn and winter.

Clock Change Trivia

The original advocate was an insect collector The concept of daylight saving time was first proposed by George Vernon Hudson, a New Zealand entomologist. His primary motivation? More daylight hours to collect insects. Hudson's idea didn't gain immediate traction but eventually found its way into public policy, albeit for different reasons.

Not a universal practice

While over 70 countries observe some form of daylight saving time, many do not. Notably, most of Africa and Asia, including populous countries like India and China, opt out of this time-altering tradition.

Chaos in the skies?

One might assume that the clock change would wreak havoc on scheduling for airlines. However, airlines have this down to a fine art, adjusting their timetables months in advance to accommodate the one-hour shift.

The energy paradox

Daylight saving time was initially adopted during World War I to save energy. However, modern studies show mixed results on its energy-saving efficacy. Some research indicates that the energy saved from reduced lighting and appliance use is offset by increased air conditioning and heating.

A leap second?

In addition to the hour shift, did you know that "leap seconds" are occasionally added to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to keep it in sync with astronomical time? While not directly related to daylight saving time, it's another example of how human timekeeping occasionally needs a nudge to align with Earth's rotation.

The "DST birth effect"

Some studies suggest that the clock change can impact birth rates, although the data is inconclusive. The theory is that the disruption to circadian rhythms could trigger spontaneous births, but more research is needed to substantiate this claim.

The farmer myth

Contrary to popular belief, farmers were not the driving force behind the adoption of daylight saving time. In fact, many farmers opposed the idea initially, as it disrupted their morning routines and agricultural practices.

By diving into these fascinating titbits, we gain a richer understanding of the clock change, a practice that affects us in more ways than we might initially think.

In summary

In navigating the clock change, we find ourselves at the intersection of history, science, and daily life. From its origins to its modern-day impacts, the practice serves as a biannual reminder of our intricate relationship with time. Understanding its effects on our physical and emotional well-being equips us to better prepare and adapt, making the transition not just an event, but an informed ritual.

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